Definitive Guide: What does Saturn Symbolize in Astrology

by Feb 28, 2022Traditional Planets

Still asking yourself: What does Saturn symbolize in astrology?

If you’ve been reading astrology websites, you may still be asking yourself what Saturn symbolizes in astrology. With so many interpretations, it can get confusing.

You’re not alone. There’s a lot of mixed messages out there. Some claim Saturn is the planet of patience and lessons. Others say it’s the planet of oppression and isolation.

So who’s right? I wrote this rather large definitive guide to answer those very questions.

In this article I demystify the ringed planet. You’re going to go on a historical journey through ancient astrology to get a better foundation than most other astrologers.

Make sure you read to the end. You’ll be able to accurately interpret Saturn in your natal chart like a pro.

what saturn signifies in astrology

Historical Overview: What Does Saturn Symbolize in Astrology

You’ve probably heard that Saturn is a planet to be feared. After-all, it’s the planet of delays, obstruction, and even death.

But is this true? In some regards, certainly. Yet, there is more to the furthest visible planet in the sky.

In this article we’re going to go back in time. First we’ll take a look at the Hellenistic astrologers take on the ringed planet. After, we’ll work our way back through the middle ages, the renaissance, and finally, more modern times.

Saturn in Hellenistic Astrology

In traditional astrology, Saturn is known as one of two malefic planets—the other being Mars. Malefic in this context means negative or challenging. But is it always? Let’s examine what the ancient astrologers had to say about the dark planet.

Our first Hellenistic astrologer, Vettius Valens, uses these words to describe Saturn:

  • Malignant
  • Self-depreciating
  • Solitary
  • Strict
  • Hypocritical
  • Unemployment
  • Obstacles
  • Imprisonment
  • Grief
  • Farmers
  • Rule Over Land
  • Great Ranks
  • Supervisors
  • Fathership

Valens interprets Saturn as the planet of difficulty. Yet he reconciles these hardships with words like leadership and land owners—the characteristics of a beneficial Saturn. What does this mean?

Valens is saying that a debilitated Saturn will challenge the stamina of a person. There’s no sugar coating it, it’s hard. But when finally conquered— or well placed—it has the potential to create something wise and permanent.

Strength through hardship is the motto of Saturn.

Our next Hellenistic astrologer, Dorotheus, associates a beneficial Saturn with inheritance, the father, and holding assets and property.

Like Valens, Dorotheus interprets loss, grief, and death for weaker Saturn placements.1

Yet Dorotheus is showing us that a beneficial Saturn creates things that last, or structures with a proper foundation.

Only after Saturn’s lessons are thoroughly learned can amazing things be accomplished.

Take into consideration that the entirety of human civilization is based upon our ancestry and building upon existing structures.

We live in family homes, we create societal systems, we build governments and corporations, architects develop cities, we utilize methods to transform the earth’s resources to our benefit.

All of the above requires long term inter-generational planning, plodding and patience: Quintessential Saturnian traits.

Yet, at its worst Saturn is the planet of melancholy, grief, loss, and even death.

Another Hellenistic astrologer, Manetho, wrote that challenged Saturn “makes (natives who are) terrible in their hearts and who plan terrible things surreptitiously.”2

Manetho notes that Saturnian nature is intelligent, but emotionally cold and distant. It obtains and holds great knowledge, and it methodically uses this knowledge to plan or build. Yet unchecked it does this solely for personal gain.

On the other hand, when we learn to transmute Saturn’s despondency, we can patiently build something beneficial.

saturns influence in astrology

Saturn in Medieval Astrology

Medieval astrologers carried the Hellenistic dogma into their writings and expanded upon it.

saturn represents fathers and grandfathers in astrology

The Medieval astrologer Al-Biruni used these words to describe Saturn3efn_note]Biruni, Al. The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology. Minnessota: Luzac & Co, 2006.[/efn_note]:

  • Cold and dry
  • Black
  • Underground canals and old buildings
  • Hard stones, lead
  • Narcotics, poison
  • Old age, fathers, grandfathers
  • Melancholy
  • Failure
  • Solitary
  • Paymaster
  • Money
  • Heritages

The above seems negative at first glance. But Al Biruni is showing us that through hardship and loss, Saturn builds permanent structures and heritages.

As an analogy, if you live in an old dilapidated building, your foundation is insecure.

When the structure inevitably burns down and you’re trapped inside, there is simply no way out of the fire but through it.

That’s Saturn—strength through crisis.

After making it through a catastrophe, you become a survivor who’s had their moment of truth.

You shine as a tribute to the human spirit. You may even want to rebuild what you had with a better foundation—so it never happens again.

is saturn good or bad

Saturn wants us to get serious about the realities of existence. It wants us to buckle down and stop living in a fantasy world.

If you resist and refuse to be malleable, the ringed planet can break your spirit, and possibly your life. Which brings us to our next astrologer.

The Medieval astrologer Bonatti4wrote of the part (lot) of Saturn: “It signifies memory and profundity of mind; faith and religion…durability…a matter perished, lost or killed…by what death the native may die…condition of the lands and the condition of the harvests… heredities…heavy buildings…praise and disgrace…time causing one to grow old, everything conquered, incarcerated, or placed in a jail and the liberation from the jail.”

Like Al Biruni, Bonatti recognizes that at its worst, Saturn causes loss, death, disgrace and imprisonment.

Yet he reconciles the negative with constructive planning, overcoming, longevity and wisdom. Hence Saturn utilizes hidden resources to survive. It builds structures, and creates lasting governments or dynasties.

It should be getting clear that Saturn, although prone to hardship, lays foundations that are permanent, wise, and inter-generational.

Saturn in Renaissance Astrology

Like their predecessors, Renaissance and modern astrologers held to earlier Saturn characteristics and expanded on them.

Renaissance astrologer William Lilly wrote that Saturn is “profound in imagination…in words reserved…in labour patient…in obtaining the goods of this life studious…in all manner of actions austere”.

Lilly is saying that a more positive Saturn, although sometimes harsh, is highly intelligent, patient, and has incredible attention to detail. It knows the value of waiting to get what it wants.

Yet he also recognizes that Saturn brings hardship when challenged.

Lilly states that “when ill dignified, he is envious, covetous, jealous, mistrusful(sic), sordid, slugglish, suspicious, stubborn, never contented.”
—Willliam Lilly

A big problem with learning Saturn’s lesson is simply patience. We want what we want immediately. People don’t enjoy putting in the hard work they know is really required for long term stability. We instead think of it as obstructing our progress.

At times waiting can feel soul crushing. But remember, all you can do is spin the web, you have to wait for the fly to land. If your web is faulty, Saturn will force you to build a new one.

what is the saturn energy in astrology

As an example, I recently went through an ordeal where my family moved next to a large drug house with scores of unscrupulous people keeping us awake day and night. Sleep was not forthcoming, our property was vandalized, and we lived in fear of theft.

During this challenge, I was forced to step back and ask myself how this happened. After blaming the universe, I did some soul searching and recognized I’d made a series of bad decisions, listened to the wrong people, and didn’t more aggressively stand up for my interests.

You can bet it won’t happen again.

After this long and hard lesson, I’ll be resolute in any life changing decisions in the future. Saturn reminds us to take responsibility and personally lay the proper foundations for large decisions or ventures.

Saturn in 20th Century Astrology

As we transit to the more modern era of astrology, we’ll see what, if anything, changed with Saturn.

Aleister Crowley wrote in the early 20th century that Saturn is “the patron of agriculture, and also the God of generation. The age of Saturn was the ‘golden age’. At that time virtue thrived – men were industrious, simple, austere and yet happy, but Saturn also represented time, and it was said of him that he devoured his own children. For this reason, he was associated with the phenomenon commonly known as death.”

In typical Crowley fashion, he goes on to blame the Abrahamic religions for misrepresenting Saturn and spinning him from the God of time and existence into the evil Shaitan (Satan).

what saturn signifies in astrology

Saturn was always a difficult planet, but perhaps Crowley has a point. The way society (d)evolved may have contributed to our lack of patience with its lessons. Today we eschew discipline and hard work in favor of instant gratification.

Like his predecessors, 20th century astrologer & Rosicrucian Max Heindel wrote in Message of the Stars that: “The intrinsic nature of Saturn is obstruction; he is slow and persistent as Mars is impulsive and quick to change; he takes no chances, but looks before he leaps, and his cold, calculating reason misses no flaws in any scheme.”

Much like the earlier astrologers, Heindel recognizes that Saturn is the planet of patient persistence.

He notes that unlike fellow malefic Mars, Saturn is plodding and never rushes. In fact, Saturn often corrects the misguided impulsiveness of Mars.

Have you ever done something impulsive that you regretted later? That was Saturn correcting your Mars’s impetuousness.

Saturn in Traditional Astronomy

In ancient astronomy, the Earth was thought to be the center of the universe.

There were 10 concentric circles surrounding the Earth.

The first 7 carried the planets.

Then came the fixed stars, the zodiac, and finally a great orb holding them all in place.

Saturn in Geocentric Astronomy

As Saturn is the furthest, last visible planet without a telescope, it was placed it in the 7th and final planetary sphere.

But what does this tell us about its ‘dark’ interpretations?

For starters, when looking up at the night sky, Saturn appears dim and chalky. Contrast its darkness to the brightness of neighboring Jupiter, or inner planets such as Venus.

Astrologer Chris Brennan makes the case that Saturn’s visible contrasts created a light and dark metaphysical analogy. For instance, whereas Jupiter’s light represented freedom, Saturn’s darkness came to mean imprisonment.5

Consequently, Saturn’s chalky darkness maybe have been the basis for its interpretation as the ‘dark’ planet of oppression.

Hellenistic astrologer Ptolemy wrote that: “Saturn produces cold and dryness, for he is most remote both from the Sun’s heat and from the earth’s vapours. But he is more effective in the production of cold than of dryness.”

In the ancient Platonic and Stoic philosophies, physical manifestation of life was due to a combination of 4 elements: earth, water, air, and fire.

Subsequently, Ptolemy observed that Saturn’s distance from the Sun makes it a cold planet, and its distance from Earth removed it from moisture, making it both cold and moderately dry.

Ptolemy and later astrologers believed these elemental compositions translated to both physical and metaphorical meanings.

For instance: Saturn causes literal physical cold and poor circulation. Metaphorically, it cools the heart and makes a person unsympathetic.

Saturn at the Fall Equinox

In traditional astronomy, during the spring equinox, when the Sun enters the ecliptic path of Aries, it is exalted. At this time of year daylight grows, plants bloom, people feel a newfound hope, and life itself is actively mobile.

Consequently, the heat of the Sun in Spring represents both physical manifestation of life, as well as the emotions we feel when we begin personal growth.

In contrast, during the fall equinox, when the Sun enters Libra, life grows dull and slow. Here the Sun is in its ‘fall’ as the daylight hours shrink.

Saturn Rules Fall

Yet Saturn, the planet of obstruction, is exalted in the autumn Libra. The daylight hours are in their decline, and the darkness of Saturn again reigns. During the fall equinox leaves fall from trees, plant-life dies, and people begin winter preparations.

In autumn we prepare. We lay the foundations for our continued survival. We systematically begin to conserve and prepare for winter. These are Saturnian traits of measured planning and hard work.

Lord of the Rings

Interestingly, it wasn’t until the 1650’s, some 40 years after Gallileo, that Cassini discovered rings surrounding Saturn. Prior to this astronomers believed the shapes of the planet were a collection of moons or handles.

Today, some scientists even believe that alien ships helped build the rings. A far cry from the dust-bowl theory put forth by the mainstream. Perhaps this subject deserves its own article.

To this day, the mythology of Saturn’s rings finds it way into pop culture.

Technical Details of Saturn in Astrology

This section is for those interested in advanced astrology. If that sounds like you, read on. If not, you can skip this section and still have a fantastic grasp on what Saturn signifies in astrology.

Saturn finds its domicile in both Capricorn and Aquarius.

It is exalted at 21 degrees of Libra.6

Here Saturn has staying power as it takes over for the weakened Sun.

what does saturn symbolize in astrology

Saturn has staying power..

In ancient astrology Saturn’s orb of influence is 9 degrees, and its lesser years are 30. It completes a zodiac cycle in approximately 29.5 years.

Saturn, and the Sun, traditionally represented the father. Saturn particularly represents grandfathers and all things older.

In the mathematical chart-points known as “lots”, you can calculate the distance from the Sun to Saturn (by day, reverse by night), and then progress that distance from the ascendant to determine the chart point of the father.7

Thus in a day chart Saturn represents the father, whereas in a night chart the Sun is more prominent.

In the triplicity lords system, Saturn rules one element by day: air—along with co-rulers Mercury and Jupiter. Air rulership means that Saturn is an intellectual planet. It uses systematic planning to build lasting empires.

William Lilly wrote that Saturn: “Is of a pale or wan ashy colour; slow in motion, finishing his course through the twelve signs of the zodiac in 29 years, 167 days and 5 hours”.

The metal of Saturn is lead.

Lead’s density, near indestructibility, and weight made it an ideal earthy depiction of the slow moving planet in the night sky.

saturn rules rocks earth lead astrology

The day of the week for Saturn is Saturday. Hence the etymological growth of “Saturn” became the English Saturday.

The number for Saturn, according to Renaissance occultist Heinrich Cornellius Agrippa, is 8. In the western hermetic quaballah, this number becomes 3, as it represents the Saturnian sphere of Binah on the tree of life.

Sect in Astrology

In traditional astrology, sect is the doctrine that places the planets into two groups: day and night.

The day sect is composed of the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn. The night sect is composed of the Moon, Venus and Mars.

The day sect is considered more masculine, while the night sect more feminine. Each group consists of one benefic planet, one malefic planet, and one luminary (Sun or Moon).

The interpretive principle is that each group is more at home during the day or night. Therefore Saturn, being of the day sect, is more beneficial (or at least can’t do as much harm) during the day.

In a night chart, however, Saturn’s negativity is amplified.

Firmicus8 writes that “Saturn, when located by day on the ascendant…will bring the native to birth with a great esteem…will be the eldest of all children…But he makes the natives themselves boastful and full of pride…But if Saturn is located by night on the degree of the ascendant, the native will be hindered by the greatest weariness and will always be oppressed by hard labor.”
—Firmicus Maternus, Hellenistic Astrologer

Planetary Joys

The planetary joys are an accessory to the sect doctrine. They place each planet at ‘home’ in a certain house within a chart. The first house, which can have the ascendant above or below the horizon, consists of the hermaphrodite Mercury.

Thereafter, the night planets adhere to the lower half of the chart, while the day planets find themselves in the upper half of the chart.

In this scheme, Saturn finds itself in the 12th hourse, aptly named “Bad Spirit”. Thus when Saturn is in this house it is said to ‘rejoice’.

This however, doesn’t always mean that Saturn is more beneficial here, only that its power can blossom for good or ill.

Thema Mundi

The Thema Mundi was an astrological creation myth that placed each planet in a certain sign at the creation of the Universe. Within, Cancer is rising with its Lord the Moon in the 1st house, while the 2nd sign Leo has its ruler, the Sun, in the next house, and so forth.

In the Thema Mundi Saturn finds itself in the 7th sign of Capricorn.

The myth relates that the Universe consisted of ‘ages’, and each age was ruled by a single planet.

Consequently, Saturn ruled the first age when people were simple and crude. During this period humanity’s only concern was hard work and survival.

Firmicus Maternus writes of Saturn in the Thema Mundi: “With good reason they located the Moon in such a way that she would first be related to Saturn and would give over to him the rulership of time. For in the beginning the universe was rude and uncultivated ; crude men had just taken the first unfamiliar steps toward enlightenment. This rude and rustic time was allotted to Saturn so that human life in its beginning should seem to harden itself by uncivilized ferocity.”9

Firmicus is saying that the first age was a difficult period for humanity.

It required an industrious people that were bred to survive hardship.

Thus Saturn was assigned to toil them during early development so that a proper foundation could be built.

how to activate saturn in astrology

Ancient Gods Representing Saturn

Ancient peoples looked at Saturn differently than we do in modern times. To the Babylonians, Saturn was a hero that came to conquer the primordial chaos, bringing law and order to the world.

This outlook was different from the oppression we associate with Saturn today. They would have answered “What does Saturn symbolize in astrology?” much differently than modern astrologers.

The earliest known mythological text that references a Saturnian deity is the Babylonian creation epic known as the Enuma Elish. In it Saturn is known as Anshar, and states that he is the “unfathomable fixer of fates.”

Saturn was also represented by the Mesopotamian deity Ninurta. Ninurta was the only God capable of recovering the “tablets of fate” stolen by a dragon.

The tablets gave the power of destiny to their owner. After Ninurta recovered them, the other Gods voted that they remain in his permanent custody, giving him control of fate itself.10

The Ninurta deity had attributes that conveyed into modern astrology. For instance, the association with rocks and earth, as well as heavy and dense minerals, are still Saturnian associations today.

Today, as then, Saturn rules foundations, fate, planning, the earth, lead, and heavy metals that serve as the groundwork for civilization.

The Greek version of the Saturn deity was known as the sickle wielding Cronus, son of Uranus and Gaia. After a prophesy that one of his children would overthrow him, he devoured them. Only one got away: Zeus(Jupiter)—whom his mother saved from harm.

Cronus later became identified with the God of time, possibly via the etymology of the Greek word Chronos, which translates to “time”.

how to strengthen saturn in astrology

Carrying on the tradition, in Rome Cronus was known simply as Saturn, God of sowing seeds and agriculture. He was known as the protector deity, saving crops from disease and death.


Saturnalia was the Roman festival to the eponymous God held in mid December. It began as a single day, but quickly expanded into a week-long celebration beginning December 17th.

Saturnalia marked the approach of the winter solstice—when the Sun is in its lowest Southerly point in the sky. Thus it appears to “hang” unmoving on the ecliptic for 3 days.

During Saturnalia, businesses, courts, and even schools closed. People decorated their homes and dressed in colorful garb.

Much like our modern Christmas celebrations, on the last day of the holiday people exchanged small figurine gifts known as Sigillaria.

Saturn in Electional Astrology

Electional astrology is the art of timing the beginning of an event to get the best possible outcome. The premise being, when you align your goals with the motion of the universe, you are more likely to succeed in any endeavor.

Elections are related to horary astrology, in which an astrologer reads an issue based on the time a question is asked. The difference being, in elections we preemptively choose the time to give you an advantage.

Saturn in electional astrology is generally considered unfortunate. An astrologer wouldn’t use it unless it was dignified through sect, domicile, exhalation, bound, triplicity or otherwise. So it’s best to tread carefully unless you know what you’re doing.

As an exception to the rule, if your election was for hindering or defeating someone, you may indeed want to work with a negative Saturn.

The medieval astrological grimoire “Picatrix” states: “An image for the destruction of a city. Make an image in the hour of Saturn, which is an infortune, when the ascendant of the city is rising, with an infortune in the ascendant and as the lord of the ascendant.”11

Should we let Saturn spook us? Not always. A beneficial Saturn in astrology could still be a great election for creating a something permanent and lasting.

how to improve saturn in astrology

For example, you’re forming a new business. In this case you may want to place a dignified Saturn aspecting the 10th house, while making it harmonious with the Moon. You’d also want to check on the status of fellow day chart planets Jupiter and the Sun; as these represent law and growth.

Renaissance occultist Heinrich Cornellius Agrippa writes: “Saturn conduceth (sic) to the prolongation of life..They also make this same Image against the Stone and diseases of the kidnyes [kidneys]…they made also from the operations of Saturn, an Image for the encreasing in power.”

Agrippa is implying that Saturn elections are useful for prolonging life, as Saturn builds strong structures, even within the human body. Hence Saturn can be a multi-faceted planet for good or ill.

It’s best to consult an expert if you’re going to work with Saturn elections.

If you need help choosing an astrological election to accomplish your goal, I offer full consultations to determine what best fits your needs.

“As Above, So Below”
—Hermes Trismegestis

Saturn in Medical Astrology

Saturn is the planet of structures, but also of their decay.

Subsequently, when it comes to our health we can see chronic conditions related to Saturn in areas we may neglect. Saturn forces us to take off the blinders and see our bodies for what they really are. If we refuse, problems arise.

Jane Patrick Ridder writes in her Handbook of Medical Astrology12 that Saturn rules:

  • The skin
  • The skeletal system
  • Ossification
  • Teeth
  • Hardening of tissues (sclerosis)
  • Aging
  • Chronic skin complaints
  • Joint and Muscle stiffness
  • Loss of hearing
  • Depression
  • Parkinson’s
  • Poor blood supply to Saturn sign areas
  • Atrophy of body processes
  • Chronic disease in general
  • Dull aches
  • Cold and Hot fevers
saturn in medical astrology

Ridder goes on to say that “Saturn builds structures, in and through which the vital force can manifest. It is only where its energy is excessive or misplaced that problems arise. Saturn afflictions tend to produce chronic and deepseated conditions, because the energy necessary to revitalise and recuperate is being obstructed.”

Ridder is saying that Saturn afflictions tend to be long lasting and hard to be free of. They require complete lifestyle changes to deal with.

For instance, I have Saturn in Leo, a difficult spot for Saturn. From this placement I find myself with poor circulation—as Leo rules the heart. This has forced me to study basic nutrition, exercise, and forego junk foods and modern amenities of various kinds, lest the problem worsen.

Remember, Saturn wants you to have a proper foundation. If it’s not there, it will make you rebuild from the ground up. It’s a painful but necessary process.

Vettius Valens writes that Saturn rules “the legs, the knees, the tendons, the lymph, the phlegm, the bladder, the kidneys, and the internal, hidden organs. Saturn is indicative of injuries arising from cold and moisture, such as dropsy, neuralgia, gout, cough, dysentery, hernia, spasms…Of materials, it rules lead, wood, and stone.

How to Improve Saturn in Astrology

Now that you have a better understanding of the ringed planet, let’s learn how to improve Saturn in astrology through an advanced NLP meditation and mantra.

This exercise will show you how to activate Saturn so that it works with you instead of against you. Perform this exercise every week until you feel that you have the power to overcome Saturn’s challenges and free yourself from its cage.

saturn in astrology effects

Perform this exercise on a Saturday, preferably at the hour of Saturn. If that’s impossible, do it anyway, it will still work.

First, I want you to sit in a dark room with the lights off. In front of you, light a black candle and place a heavy rock next to it, also black. Get comfortable, breathe deeply, and count the numbers 1 through 10 with each breath.

As you breathe, sit and watch the shadows dance along the walls, the floor, and everywhere in-between.

Know that these shadows are living things.

As you quiet your mind, hear the shadows whisper into your thoughts, beckoning you. Be still and get to know them via quiet observation.

After you’ve gotten acquainted, close your eyes and thank them for joining you. As you continue to breathe, begin to get curious as to what secrets these shadows hold.

Next, visualize in your minds eye a large mountaintop. At the crest sits an ancient temple. As you approach, a guide appears. He takes you inside to a large chamber in the shape of a hexagon. He beckons you to sit in the middle.

As you sit, a large screen appears in front of you. It’s playing scenes from your life, difficult scenes.

You begin to see the most challenging situations you’ve ever been through.

If this is too difficult for you, picture someone else in a challenging situation. Your guide assures you that nothing can harm you, but you must observe the screen.

After a few moments, the guide abruptly dims the scene and changes the channel.

You now see a scene of you working hard to build and overcome a negative situation. If you can’t recall a scene like this, imagine someone else putting in enormous amounts of effort to overcome their challenges.

When the situation is conquered, you are both relieved and proud. The situation has turned positive.

The guide again taps the screen. Soon this positive scene grows brighter and louder. You feel drawn into it, feeling alive with the excitement.

As you watch, you now feel that you are capable of overcoming impossible odds. As these feelings begin to peak, squeeze your fist, thrust it into the air, and proclaim “I create the impossible”.

Still feeling your newfound strength, open your eyes and return to the shadows.

This time, as you breathe in, feel their hidden energy enter your pores. With each breath the shadows surround you, waiting to do your bidding. You are their new master.

You feed them power, and they in turn feed it back to you. You hear them tell you to say the mantra and call them when you need them.

Thank the shadows before blowing out the candle.

As you sit in the dark, once more thrust your fist into the air and proclaim the mantra, “I create the impossible”! Feel the energy of the temple scene. Know that the shadows, although gone, are waiting to aid you, and that you have their power within.

Turn on the light. Know that you’ve taken the power of the unseen and made it your own. Know that you are a creator.


If you followed along closely you now have a better understanding of Saturn’s energy in astrology then many other astrologers. Now when someone asks: “what does Saturn symbolize in astrology”? You’ll know the answer.

For even more interpretations, forecasts, and methods to improve Saturn in astrology, subscribe to my mailing list. You’ll get exclusive information not available anywhere else.


  1. Pingree, Dorotheus. Carmen Astrologicum. Abington: Astrology Classics, 2005.
  2. Manetho, Lopilato Translation. The Apotelesmatika Of Manetho. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2006, 209.
  3. Biruni, Al. The Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology. Minnessota: Luzac & Co, 2006.
  4. Bonatti, Gvidonis, and Robert Zoller. On The Arabic Parts., 2000, 10.
  5. Brennan, Chris. Hellenistic Astrology: The Study of Fate and Fortune. Denver: Amor Fati Publications, 2017, 186.
  6. Pingree, Dorotheus. Carmen Astrologicum. Abington: Astrology Classics, 2005, 2.
  7. Pingree, Dorotheus. Carmen Astrologicum. Abington: Astrology Classics, 2005, 14.
  8. Maternus, Firmicus. Ancient Astrology in Theory and Practice, Brahm Translation. Park Ridge: Noyes Press, 1975, 75.
  9. Maternus, Firmicus. Ancient Astrology in Theory and Practice, Brahm Translation. Park Ridge: Noyes Press, 1975, 74.
  10. Baigent, Michael. Astrology in Ancient Mesopotamia. Rochester: Bear & Company, 2015, 136-7.
  11. Greer, John, and Christopher Warnock. The Complete Picatrix, The Occult Classic of Astrological Magic Liber Atratus Edition. Minneapolis: Adocentyne Press, 2010, 43.
  12. Ridder-Patrick, Jane. A Handbook of Medical Astrology. United Kingdom: CrabApple Press, 2006, 60.